Sinuses are air-filled spaces embedded in the facial bones in the nasal cavity. It has various functions such as reducing the weight of the skull, creating a barrier against shocks and moisturizing the intranasal area by creating regular secretions. Sinusitis is the infection of the sinuses around the nose cavity. Infections that emerge in short-term are called acute sinusitis. The infections which are repetitive and continue longer than 3 months are called chronic sinusitis. Acute sinusitis acts as an upper respiratory tract infection and can be treated in similar ways which are used in this infection. Chronic sinusitis requires medication besides surgical therapy. The diagnosis is made through the patient’s story, nasal endoscopic examination and radiological investigations. Computed Tomography (CT) is the most useful technique in radiographic examinations. Patients’ complaints are similar as in a severe flu, such as headache, facial pain, nasal congestion, cough, fatigue and coryza. In acute and some chronic sinusitis 10-14 days of appropriate antibiotic treatment may be sufficient. In chronic sinusitis treatment, we need to eliminate the causes of chronicity. In order to achieve this, surgical treatment is often the most convenient way.
During the past 15 years, a great progress has been recorded in surgical treatment of chronic sinusitis. A surgical procedure is applied which does not harm intranasal mechanism and nasal mucosal structure. The experience and knowledge of the surgeon is very important in this technique known as Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS). In this surgery practice, sinuses are achieved with the aid of an endoscope by working in nose. Sinuses are cleaned without damage to the surrounding tissue and natural channels are re-opened for enabling the physiology to gain its regular functions after the operation. Because it protects the sine function and foresees the correction of altered physiology, the results of endoscopic surgery are very successful. Sinusitis problem is solved at a great rate by an operation which is performed with the aid of special microsurgical instruments and endoscopes showing the finest detail of sinuses and nose. Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery is difficult to doctors while it is an easy operation to patients. Doctors who will perform the operation must have all technical equipment, the knowledge and experience. This surgery can be performed under local or general anaesthesia and is completed in a period of 1-2 hours. Post operation period passes very easy and patients can return to their daily activities due to absence of a large buffer that completely covering the nose. Patients are generally discharged on the first day of the operation and are being treated as outpatients. Patients are monitored after the buffer is removed within 1-2 days and they can return to work at the 5th day. After the 3-week of early follow-up period, patients are taken into a long term follow-up.